Tuesday, June 10, 2008

How we describe stress in our life....

Stress = Force/Area
Stress boleh di tafsirkan sebagai tekanan yg sentiasa bergantung kepada kedua-dua jenis pemalar ini iaitu Daya dan Luas Kawasan. Stress berkadar songsang dengan Luas Kawasan (A). Semakin luas kawasan yang dikenakan daya semakin kurang stress yang dihadapai dikawasan tersebut. Dan Stress pula berkadar terus dengan Daya (Force). Semakin tinggi daya dikenakan dikawasan tersebut, stress akan meningkat.Begitulah jugak disebaliknya.
Sekarang kita play aroung with this stress equation,
Stress = stress in our life
Force = peristiwa-peristiwa yang menyebabkan stress
Area = Diri kita yang tulang empat kerat ni.
Sekarang kita identify one by one these three thing, Stress of course kita tak leh nak elak mesti jadi punya dalam hidup kita. Then Force, for sure kita tak boleh nak duga peristiwa-peristiwa yang akan berlaku dalam hidup kita. Area this pemalar we can increase and decrease because there's one phrases yg kita kena ingat, Allah takkan ubah sesuatu kaum selain daripada kaum tu sendiri ingin mengubah nasib kaumnya..
so, very simple analogy. If we face with any stress, its depend on diri kita. Klu kita ada keinginan nak menjadi lebih baik n take the challenge, we strive to expand our Area as big as we can. According to the stress equation, Stress berkadar songsang dengan Area. So, increase Area, Stress will decrease. How to expand our Area?...I leave it so that kita sama-sama boleh fikirkannya......

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Born 1 April 1936 (1936-04-01) (age 72)
Bhopal, British India
Residence Pakistan
Nationality Pakistani
Fields Metallurgy
Institutions Khan Research Laboratories
Alma mater Catholic University of Leuven
Delft University of Technology
Known for Pakistani Nuclear Program
Notable awards Hilal-i-Imtiaz (14-8-1989)
Nishan-i-Imtiaz (14-8-1996 and 23-3-1999)
Religious stance Islam

Abdul Qadeer Khan (Urdu: عبدالقدیر خان; born April 1, 1936) is a Pakistani scientist and metallurgical engineer widely regarded as the founder of Pakistan's nuclear program. His middle name is occasionally rendered as Quadeer, Qadir or Gadeer, and his given names are usually abbreviated to A.Q.

In January 2004, Khan confessed to having been involved in a clandestine international network of nuclear weapons technology proliferation from Pakistan to Libya, Iran and North Korea. On February 5, 2004, the President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, announced that he had pardoned Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who is widely seen as a national hero.[1]

In an August 23, 2005 interview with Kyodo News General Pervez Musharraf confirmed that Khan had supplied gas centrifuges and gas centrifuge parts to North Korea and, possibly, an amount of uranium hexafluoride gas.

Early life

Dr. Khan was born (Bhopal) into a middle-class Mohajir Muslim family which migrated from India to Pakistan in 1952. He obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1960 from the University of Karachi, majoring in physical metallurgy. He then obtained the degree of Master of Science (Technology) in 1967 from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, and a Doctor of Engineering degree in metallurgical engineering from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in 1972.

Work in the Netherlands

In 1972, the year he received his PhD, Khan joined the staff of the Physical Dynamics Research Laboratory (FDO) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. FDO was a subcontractor for URENCO, the uranium enrichment facility at Almelo in the Netherlands, which had been established in 1970 by the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the Netherlands to assure a supply of enriched uranium for the European nuclear reactors. The URENCO facility used Zippe-type centrifugeisotope uranium-235 out of uranium hexafluoride gas by spinning a mixture of the two isotopes at up to 100,000 revolutions a minute. The technical details of these centrifuge systems are regulated as secret information by export controls because they could be used for the purposes of nuclear proliferation. These technical details along with blue prints of centrifuge were clandestinely 'taken' by A Q Khan and were used later to develop his own nuclear black market.. technology to separate the fissionable

In May 1974, India carried out its first nuclear test, code named Smiling Buddha, to the great alarm of the Government of Pakistan. Around this time, Khan having a distinguished career and being one of the senior most scientists at the nuclear plant he worked at, had privileged access to the most restricted areas of the URENCO facility as well as to documentation on the gas centrifuge technology. India's surprise nuclear test and the subsequent Pakistani scramble to establish a deterrent caused great alarm to the Pakistani government including the Pakistani diaspora including individuals like Khan. A subsequent investigation by the Dutch authorities found that he had passed highly-classified material to a network of Pakistani intelligence agents; however, they found no evidence that he was sent to the Netherlands as a spy nor were they able to determine whether he approached the Government of Pakistan about espionage first or whether they had approached him. In December 1975, Khan suddenly left the Netherlands; he returned to Pakistan in 1976.

The former Dutch Prime Minister, Ruud Lubbers, said in early August 2005 that the Government of the Netherlands knew of Dr. A.Q. Khan "stealing" the secrets of nuclear technology but let him go on at two occasions after the CIA expressed their wish to continue monitoring his movements.

Development of nuclear weapons

In 1976, Khan was put in charge of Pakistan's uranium enrichment program with the support of the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The uranium enrichment program was originally launched in 1974 by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as Project-706 and AQ Khan joined it in the spring of 1976. In July of that year, he took over the project from PAEC and established the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) at Kahuta, Rawalpindi, subsequently, renamed the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) by the then President of Pakistan, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The laboratories became the focal point for developing a uranium enrichment capability for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development programme. KRL also took on many other weapons development projects, including the development of the nuclear weapons-capable Ghauri ballistic missile. KRL occupied a unique role in Pakistan's Defence Industry, reporting directly to the office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and having extremely close relations with the Pakistani military. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, has said that, during her term of office, even she was not allowed to visit the facility (KRL).

Pakistan's establishment of its own uranium enrichment capability was so rapid that international suspicion was raised as to whether there was outside assistance to this program. It was reported that Chinese technicians had been at the facility in the early 1980s, but suspicions soon fell on Khan's activities at URENCO. In 1983, Khan was sentenced in absentia to four years in prison by an Amsterdam court for attempted espionage; the sentence was later overturned at an appeal on a legal technicality. Khan rejected any suggestion that Pakistan had illicitly acquired nuclear expertise: "All the research work [at Kahuta] was the result of our innovation and struggle," he told a group of Pakistani librarians in 1990. "We did not receive any technical know-how from abroad, but we cannot reject the use of books, magazines, and research papers in this connection."

In 1987, a British newspaper reported that Khan had confirmed Pakistan's acquisition of a nuclear weapons development capability, by his saying that the U.S. intelligence report "about our possessing the bomb (nuclear weapon) is correct and so is speculation of some foreign newspapers".[citation needed] Khan's statement was disavowed by the Government of Pakistan. and initially he denied giving it, but he later retracted his denial. In October 1991, the Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that Khan had repeated his claim at a dinner meeting of businessmen and industrialists in Karachi, which "sent a wave of jubilation" through the audience.[citation needed]

During the 1980s and 1990s, the Western governments became increasingly convinced that covert nuclear and ballistic missile collaboration was taking place between China, Pakistan, and North Korea. According to the Washington Post, "U.S. intelligence operatives secretly rifled Dr. A.Q. [Khan's] luggage ... during an overseas trip in the early 1980s to find the first concrete evidence of Chinese collaboration with Pakistan's [nuclear] bomb effort: a drawing of a crude, but highly reliable, Hiroshima-sized [nuclear] weapon that must have come directly from Beijing, according to the U.S. officials." In October 1990, the activities of KRL led to the United States terminating economic and military aid to Pakistan, following this, the Government of Pakistan agreed to a freeze in its nuclear weapons development program. But Khan, in a July 1996 interview with the Pakistani weekly Friday Times, said that "at no stage was the program [of producing nuclear weapons-grade enriched uranium] ever stopped".[6]

The American clampdown may have prompted an increasing reliance on Chinese and North Korean nuclear and missile expertise. In 1995, the U.S. Government learned that KRL had bought 5,000 specialized magnets from a Chinese Government-owned company, for use in the uranium enrichment equipment. More worryingly, it was reported that the Pakistani nuclear weapons technology was being exported to other states aspirant of nuclear weapons, notably, North Korea. In May 1998, Newsweek magazine published an article alleging that Khan had offered to sell nuclear know-how to Iraq, an allegation that he denied. United Nations arms inspectors apparently discovered documents discussing Khan's purported offer in Iraq; Iraqi officials said the documents were authentic but that they had not agreed to work with Khan, fearing it was a sting operation.[citation needed] A few weeks later, both India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests (Pokhran-II and Chagai-I, respectively) that confirmed both countries' development of nuclear weapons. The tests was greeted with jubilation in both countries; in Pakistan, Khan was feted as a national hero. The President of Pakistan, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, awarded a gold medal to him for his role in masterminding the Pakistani nuclear weapons development programme. The United States immediately imposed sanctions on both India and Pakistan and publicly blamed China for assisting the Pakistanis.

Investigations into Pakistan's nuclear proliferation

Khan's open promotion of Pakistan's nuclear weapons and ballistic missile capabilities became something of an embarrassment to Pakistan's government. The United States government became increasingly convinced that Pakistan was trading nuclear weapons technology to North Korea in exchange for ballistic missile technology. In the face of strong U.S. criticism, the Pakistani government announced in March 2001 that Khan was to be dismissed from his post as Chairman of KRL, a move that drew strong criticism from the religious and nationalist opposition to the President of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf. Perhaps in response to this, the Pakistani government appointed Khan to the post of Special Science and Technology Adviser to the President, with a ministerial rank. While this could be regarded as a promotion for Khan, it removed him from hands-on management of KRL and gave the government an opportunity to keep a closer eye on his activities. In 2002, the Wall Street Journal quoted unnamed "senior Pakistani Government officials" as conceding that Khan's dismissal from KRL had been prompted by the U.S. government's suspicions of his involvement in nuclear weapons technology transfers with North Korea.

Khan came under renewed scrutiny following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S. and the subsequent US invasion of Afghanistan to oust the fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. It emerged that al-Qaeda had made repeated efforts to obtain nuclear weapons materials to build either a radiological bomb or a crude nuclear bomb. In late October 2001, the Pakistani government arrested three Pakistani nuclear scientists, all with close ties to Khan, for their suspected connections with the Taliban.

The Bush administration continued to investigate Pakistani nuclear weapons proliferation, ratcheting up the pressure on the Pakistani government in 2001 and 2002 and focusing on Khan's personal role. It was alleged in December 2002 that U.S. intelligence officials had found evidence that an unidentified agent, supposedly acting on Khan's behalf, had offered nuclear weapons expertise to Iraq in the mid-1990s, though Khan strongly denied this allegation and the Pakistani government declared the evidence to be "fraudulent". The United States responded by imposing sanctions on KRL, citing concerns about ballistic missile technology transfers.

2003 revelations from Iran and Libya

In August 2003, reports emerged of dealings with Iran; it was claimed that Khan had offered to sell nuclear weapons technology to that country as early as 1989. The Iranian government came under intense pressure from the United States and the European Union to make a full disclosure of its nuclear programme and, finally, agreed in October 2003 to accept tougher investigations from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The IAEA reported that Iran had established a large uranium enrichment facility using gas centrifuges based on the "stolen" URENCO designs, which had been obtained "from a foreign intermediary in 1987." The intermediary was not named but many diplomats and analysts pointed to Pakistan and, specifically, to Khan, who was said to have visited Iran in 1986. The Iranians turned over the names of their suppliers and the international inspectors quickly identified the Iranian gas centrifuges as Pak-1's, the model developed by Khan in the early 1980s. In December 2003, two senior staff members at KRL were arrested on suspicion of having sold nuclear weapons technology to the Iranians.

Also in December 2003, Libya made a surprise announcement that it had weapons of mass destruction programmes which it would now abandon. Libyan government officials were quoted as saying that Libya had bought nuclear components from various black market dealers, including Pakistani nuclear scientists. U.S. officials who visited the Libyan uranium enrichment plants shortly afterwards reported that the gas centrifuges used there were very similar to the Iranian ones.

Dismissal, confession, and pardon

Investigation and confession

The Pakistani government's blanket denials became untenable as evidence mounted of illicit nuclear weapons technology transfers. It opened an investigation into Khan's activities, arguing that even if there had been wrongdoing, it had occurred without the Government of Pakistan's knowledge or approval. But critics noted that virtually all of Khan's overseas travels, to Iran, Libya, North Korea, Niger, Mali, and the Middle East, were on official Pakistan government aircraft which he commandeered at will, given the status he enjoyed in Pakistan. Often, he was accompanied by senior members of the Pakistan nuclear establishment.

Although he was not arrested, Khan was summoned for "debriefing". On January 25, 2004, Pakistani investigators reported that Khan and Mohammed Farooq, a high-ranking manager at KRL, had provided unauthorised technical assistance to Iran's nuclear weapons program in the late 1980s and early 1990s, allegedly in exchange for tens of millions of dollars. General Mirza Aslam Beg, a former Chief of Army Staff at the time, was also said to have been implicated; the Wall Street Journal quoted U.S. government officials as saying that Khan had told the investigators that the nuclear weapons technology transfers to Iran had been authorised by General Mirza Aslam Beg.[7]. On January 31, Khan was dismissed from his post as the Science Adviser to the President of Pakistan, ostensibly to "allow a fair investigation" of the nuclear weapons technology proliferation allegations.

In early February 2004, the Government of Pakistan reported that Khan had signed a confession indicating that he had provided Iran, Libya, and North Korea with designs and technology to aid in nuclear weapons programs, and said that the government had not been complicit in the proliferation activities. The Pakistani official who made the announcement said that Khan had admitted to transferring technology and information to Iran between 1989 and 1991, to North Korea and Libya between 1991 and 1997 (U.S. officials at the time maintained that transfers had continued with Libya until 2003), and additional technology to North Korea up until 2000.[8] On February 4, 2004, Khan appeared on national television and confessed to running a proliferation ring; he was pardoned the next day by Musharraf, the Pakistani president, but held under house arrest.

Information coming from the investigation

The full scope of the Khan network is not fully known. Centrifuge components were apparently manufactured in Malaysia with the aid of South Asian and German middlemen, and used a Dubai[1] In Malaysia, Khan was helped by Sri Lanka-born Buhary Sayed Abu Tahir, who shuttled between Kuala Lumpur and Dubai to arrange for the manufacture of centrifuge components.[9] The Khan investigation also revealed how many European companies were defying export restrictions and aiding the Khan network as well as the production of the Pakistani bomb. Dutch companies exported thousands of centrifuges to Pakistan as early as 1976, and a German company exported facilities for the production of tritium to the country.[10] computer company as a false front. According to Western sources, Khan had three motivations for his proliferation: 1. a defiance of Western nations and an eagerness to pierce the "clouds of so-called secrecy," 2. an eagerness to give nuclear technology to Muslim nations, and 3. money, acquiring wealth and real estate in his dealings. Much of the technology he sold was second-hand from Pakistan's own nuclear program and involved many of the same logistical connections which he had used to develop the Pakistani bomb.

The investigation exposed Israeli businessman Asher Karni as having sold nuclear devices to Khan's associates. Karni is currently awaiting trial in a U.S. prison. Tahir was arrested in Malaysia in May 2004 under a Malaysian law allowing for the detention of individuals posing a security threat.

Pardon and U.S. reaction

On February 5, 2004, the day after Khan's televised confession, he was pardoned by Pakistani President Musharraf. However, Khan remained under house arrest.

The United States government imposed no sanctions on the Pakistani government following the confession and pardon. U.S. government officials said that in the War on Terrorism, it was not their goal to denounce or imprison people but "to get results." Sanctions on Pakistan or demands for an independent investigation of the Pakistani military might have lead to restrictions on or the loss of use of Pakistan military bases needed by US and NATO troops in Afghanistan. "It's just another case where you catch more flies with honey than with vinegar," a U.S. government official explained.[citation needed] The U.S. has also refrained from applying further direct pressure on Pakistan to disclose more about Khan's activities due to a strategic calculation that such pressure might topple President Musharraf.

In a speech to the National Defense University on February 11, 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed to reform the International Atomic Energy Agency: "No state, under investigation for proliferation violations, should be allowed to serve on the IAEA Board of Governors—or on the new special committee. And any state currently on the Board that comes under investigation should be suspended from the Board. The integrity and mission of the IAEA depends on this simple principle: Those actively breaking the rules should not be entrusted with enforcing the rules."[11] The Bush proposal was seen as targeted against Pakistan which, currently, serves a regular term on the IAEA's Board of Governors. It has not received attention from other governments.

Subsequent developments


In September 2005, Musharraf revealed that after two years of questioning Khan — which the Pakistani government insisted it do itself without outside intervention — that they had confirmed that Khan had supplied centrifuge parts to North Korea. Still undetermined was whether or not Khan passed a bomb design to North Korea or Iran that had been discovered in Libya.

Renewed calls for IAEA access

Since 2005, and particularly in 2006, there have been renewed calls by IAEA officials, senior U.S. congressmen, EC politicians, and others to make Khan available for interrogation by IAEA investigators, given lingering skepticism about the "fullness" of the disclosures made by Pakistan regarding Khan's activities. In the U.S., these calls have been made by elected U.S. lawmakers rather than by the U.S. Department of State, though some interpret them as signalling growing discontent within the U.S. establishment with the current Pakistani regime headed by Musharraf.

In May 2006, the U.S House of Representatives Subcommittee on International Terrorism and Nonproliferation held a hearing titled, "The A.Q. Khan Network: Case Closed?" Recommendations offered by legislators and experts at this hearing included demanding that Pakistan turn over Khan to the U.S. for questioning as well as that Pakistan make further efforts to curb future nuclear proliferation. In June 2006, the Pakistani Senate, subcommittee hearing, issued a unanimous resolution criticizing the committee, stating that it will not turn over Khan to U.S. authorities and defending its sovereignty and nuclear program.

Lack of further action

Neither Khan nor any of his alleged Pakistani collaborators have yet to face any charges in Pakistan, where he remains an extremely popular figure. Khan is still seen as an outspoken nationalist for his belief that the West is inherently hostile to Islam. In Pakistan's strongly anti-U.S. climate, tough action against him poses political risks for Musharraf, who already faces accusations of being too pro-U.S. from key leaders in Pakistan's Army. An additional complicating factor is that few believe that Khan acted alone and the affair risks gravely damaging the Army, which oversaw and controlled the nuclear weapons development programme and of which Musharraf was commander-in-chief, until his resignation from military service on November 28, 2007.[13] In December 2006, the Swedish Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission (SWMDC) headed by Hans Blix, a former chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC); said in a report that Khan could not have acted alone "without the awareness of the Pakistani Government".

It has also been speculated that Khan's two daughters, who live in the UK and are UK subjects (thanks to their part-British, part-South African mother Henny), are in possession of extensive documentation linking the government of Pakistan to Khan's activities; such documentation is presumably intended to ensure that no further action is taken against Dr. Khan.[15] Conversely, both high-profile government members, such as Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq, as well as political opposition parties have expressed their support for Khan, allegations of nuclear trafficking notwithstanding.


On August 22, 2006, the Pakistani government announced that Khan had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and was undergoing treatment. On September 9, 2006, Khan was operated at Agha Khan hospital, in Karachi. According to doctors, the operation was successful, but on October 30th it was reported that his condition had deteriorated and he was suffering from deep vein thrombosis.

Release from house arrest

In July 2007, two senior government officials told the Associated Press that restrictions on Khan had been eased several months earlier, and that Khan could meet friends and relatives either at his home or elsewhere in Pakistan. The officials said that a security detail continued to control his movements.


According to Dawn on March 5th, 2008 Dr A.Q. Khan has been hospitalised. Nuclear scientist Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan was hospitalised on Wednesday morning for medical check-up after having developed an infection.

According to an ISPR statement, Dr Khan was provided immediate medical treatment in his home when he complained of weakness on Tuesday evening.

Medical check-up showed low blood pressure and fever, probably because of some infection. Doctors advised him to be hospitalised for a complete medical check-up. Dr Khan has been shifted to the hospital in the morning where a panel of doctors, which treated him earlier, is taking care of him,” the statement said.

It said Dr Khan had been keeping good health since undergoing a prostate surgery in September 2006. “Doctors are hopeful that Dr Khan will return home fully recovered in a couple of days. The public will, however, be kept informed about the state of health of Dr Khan, periodically,” the statement said.

Family sources said Dr Khan was probably suffering from infection. They said he was not feeling well since Friday and his body was not responding to antibiotics and his blood pressure was also erratic. They, however, said that he had been hospitalised as a precautionary measure and his condition was not serious.

Je Han
Distinguished Professor and holder of the Marcus C. Easterling Chair

Curriculum Vita

Interest Areas
Thermal Fluid Sciences – heat transfer and cooling in gas turbines, heat transfer enhancement, new cooling concepts, heat transfer in rotating passages, film cooling in unsteady high turbulent flows, mini-scale heat transfer, combustion system heat transfer, heat transfer in micro turbine and fuel cell systems, advanced CFD and experimental methods. Energy and Power Technology – advanced hydrogen turbine for future electricity generation, micro-turbine and fuel cell systems for distributed power, advanced gas turbine for aircraft propulsion and vehicle transportation, new energy, energy efficiency, renewable and sustainable energy science and technology.

Sc.D. Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1976
M.S. Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 1973
B.S. Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 1970

Je-Chin Han is presently Distinguished Professor and holder of the Marcus C. Easterling Endowed Chair and Director of the Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory at Texas A&M University. He was a R&D engineer at Ex- Cell-O Corporation in Michigan (1976-1980). Since 1980, Han has been a faculty member in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University where he has conducted research and taught courses in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. In 1989, Han was promoted to Professor of Mechanical Engineering. In September 1991, he was named Halliburton Professor of Mechanical Engineering and then in January 1993 he was named the College of Engineering’s HTRI Endowed Professor. He was appointed Division Chair for the Thermal and Fluid Sciences Division of the Department of Mechanical Engineering from July 1993 to August 1998. Han was a Research Fellow at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base from May- August 1985. He took a sabbatical leave to NASA-Glenn Research Center and United Technologies - Pratt and Whitney Turbine Module Center from September 2000 to August 2001. In June 2001, Han was selected as the inaugural holder of the Marcus C. Easterling Chair Professor in Mechanical Engineering. In May 2006, Han was named Distinguished Professor of Texas A&M University.

Han’s main research areas focus on advanced gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology. He has worked on turbine blade cooling research since he was a graduate student at M.I.T. in the early 1970s. He is nationally and internationally known for his pioneering work in rib-turbulated internal cooling technology in the early 1980s. Since joining TAMU in 1980, he has worked on many turbine heat transfer cooling projects with a total funding of more than $6.5 million, including augmented internal cooling of turbine airfoils, rotating coolant passages heat transfer, rotating blade film cooling, unsteady high turbulence effects on turbine blade film cooling, combustor liner cooling, mini-scale heat transfer and turbine edge cooling (leading-edge, trailing-edge, platform, and blade tip regions) under engine flow conditions. Han’s research has been on aircraft propulsion, electricity generation, and industrial gas turbine applications funded by NSF, NASA-Lewis/Glenn, AFOSR, Wright-Patterson, the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, Textron-Lycoming, the State of Texas-ATP and ERAP, DOE-Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research and DOE-University Turbine Systems Research, GE-Aircraft Engines and GE-R&D Center, Solar Turbines, Siemens-Westinghouse, and United Technologies-Pratt & Whitney. During Han’s sabbatical leave with NASA-Glenn Research Center and United Technologies-Pratt & Whitney (9/1/00-8/31/01), he was involved in the UEET (Ultra Efficient Engine Technology) Program, which focused on the first rotor blade film-cooling and internal cooling designs with the goal of reducing cooling flow requirements in gas turbines and improving gas turbine durability and efficiency of newly developed super-cooled blades. Dr. Han has supervised more than 32 Ph.D., 20 M.S. students, and 15 Post-Doctoral Research Associates/Scholars. He served as editor, associate editor, or on editorial boards for 7 national and international journals. Han is the author or co-author of approximately 340 technical publications (including 160 refereed journal papers, 20 articles appearing in books, and 160 refereedconference papers). His publication has received more than 2,000 scientific citations according to the ISI Web of Science (http://isiknowledge.com, 2-3-07).

• Texas Engineering Experiment Station - TEES Senior Fellow, 1988
• ASME FELLOW - 1991
• Halliburton Professorship, College of Engineering, Texas A&M University, 1991-1992
• HTRI (Heat Transfer Research Inc.) Endowed Professorship, College of Engineering, Texas A&M, 1993-2001
• Faculty Distinguished Achievement Award in Research, The Association of Former Students, Texas A&M University, May 4, 1995
• AIAA 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting Technical Program Chair Recognition, 10-13 January 2000
• ASME Heat Transfer Division Certificate Award for Service as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Heat Transfer, 1997-2000
• Marcus C. Easterling Endowed Chair, Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, June 2001- present
• Outstanding Graduate Teaching Award, Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas A&M University, October 26, 2001
• ASME Heat Transfer Memorial Award in the Art Category – November 19, 2002
• ISROMAC (International Symposium on Rotating Machinery) Award in Heat Transfer Category– March 9, 2004
• AIAA Thermophysics Award – June 29, 2004
• ASME IGTI Certificate Award for Valued Service as Chair – Heat Transfer Committee, 2004-2006
• Distinguished Professor, Texas A&M University, September 2006-present Patents and Books Han, J.C., Dutta, S., and Ekkad, S.V., Gas Turbine Heat Transfer and Cooling Technology, Taylor& Francis, Inc., New York, published in December 2000, ISBN# 1-56032-841-X, 646 pages.

Recent Publications
• Han, J.C., “Turbine Blade Cooling Studies at Texas A&M 1980-2004,” AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, (invited AIAA Thermophysics Award Lecture), Vol. 20, No. 2, 2006, pp. 161-187.
• Yang, H., Chen, H.C., and Han, J.C., 2006, “Flow and Heat Transfer Prediction on Turbine Rotor with Various Tip Configurations, AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, pp. 80-91.
• Han, J.C. and Chen, H.C., “Turbine Blade Internal Cooling Passages with Rib Turbulators,” AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, (invited review paper for a special issue on Turbine Science and Technology), Vol. 22, No. 2, 2006, pp. 226-248.
• Ahn, J.Y., Schobeiri, M.T., Han, J.C., and Moon, H.K., “Film Cooling Effectiveness on the Leading Edge Region of a Rotating Turbine Blade with Two Rows of Film Cooling Holes Using Pressure Sensitive Paint,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, September 2006, pp. 879-888.
• Fu, W.L., Wright, L.M., and Han, J.C., “Buoyancy Effects on Heat Transfer in Five Different Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Channels with Smooth Walls and 45-Degree Ribbed Walls,” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, November 2006, pp. 1130-1141.
February 2007

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Make a move baby....

Bare in Your mind




Friday, April 11, 2008

Think out of the box

Dalam perjalanan hidup kita, ada banyak perkara dan agenda yang hendak kita lakukan. Setiap perkara yang terlintas begitu bermakna dan kita cuba untuk memastikan semua yang dirancang dapat dilakukan dengan sempurna. Tambahan pula anak muda yang mempunyai darah dan semangat yang begitu membara untuk bertindak. Berani menempuh cabaran walaupun cabaran itu tidak pernah dilaluinya sebelum ini. 1st time experience terlalu sukar untuk seseorang itu menempuhnya. Hanya berbekalkan semangat dan keazaman yang kukuh sahaja menjadi tunggak untuk mendaki dan memacakkan bendera kebanggaan peribadi.

Anggapan kebiasaan memerlukan seseorang dalam hidup untuk memastikan kejayaan sentiasa bernyala semakin samar-samar. Kejayaan seseorang tidak terletak pada orang yang dia sentiasa bergantung, tapi ia bergantung pada diri individu tersebut. Sejauh mana dia menggunakan ilmu yang ada didalam dirinya dan sejauh mana keinginannya untuk mencari jawapan kepada setiap permasalahan yang berlaku. Dan yang paling penting sekali, macam mana dia nak mengaplikasikan jawapan-jawapan dan sumber-sumber yang dia perolehi untuk dirinya dan kemaslahatan masyarakat disekelilingnya.

Sesungguhnya manusia memerlukan panduan dalam hidupnya. Setiap apa yang dilakukan oleh manusia diatas muka bumi ini memerlukan reference yang mana reference ini sentiasa diguna pakai dalam setiap keadaan yg berlaku dan bakal berlaku.

Contoh yang diberikan disini begitu mudah dipahami oleh masyarakat sekiranya diteliti sebaik mungkin. Manusia dijadikan di muka bumi ini besertakan reference yang dijadikan berdasarkan kemampuan manusia tersebut. Beserta dengan reference ini disertakan sekali pengajar untuk memudahkan manusia memahami reference yang telah diberikan. Dalam segala segi liku-liku kehidupan semua telah tertulis didalam reference yang diberikan. Cuma menusia memerlukan kepandaian dan kebijaksanaan untuk mengorek rahsia-rahsia dan cara-cara yang telah dinyatakan sekian kurun lamanya. Ia seolah-olah satu garis panduan atau titik permulaan untuk mencari punca-punca dan penyelesaian bagi setiap permasalahan di atas muka bumi ini. Setiap kali kita tersimpang, pastikan kita sentiasa membawanya untuk mengelakkan kita tersimpang lebih jauh lagi. Dan sekiranya kita sudah tersimpang jauh tanpa membawanya bersama-sama, kebarangkalian, kita akan cuba mencari reference yang lain dan paling dekat dengan simpang yang kita tersesat untuk kembali sebagai fitrah manusia yang sentiasa memerlukan reference dalam hidupnya. Berhati-hatilah diriku dan sahabat-sahabat sekalian. Tersesat dengan hidayah, adalah ujian bagi manusia yang sentiasa tidak lari dari segala ujian. Tersesat tanpa hidayah adalah laknat kepada manusia yang tidak mengenali kehebatan dirinya sendiri.

Kita bebas melakukan apa sahaja diatas muka bumi ini. Kita tidak pernah disekat, dikongkong oleh sesuatu yang menjadi pengangan kita. Pengangan kita adalah untuk membuktikan kepada kita bahawa kita mempunyai limit tertentu dalam pergerakan kita diatas muka bumi ini. Dan diakui melepasi limit tersebut akan menjadikan kita alat yang sudah tidak boleh dipakai lagi. . Seberapa pantasnya manusia yang bergerak bergantung kepada kekuatan pengangan yang dipengangnya.

Berbekalkan pengangan, misi dan visi sentiasa diubah suai berdasarkan level kekuatan pengangan yang dipengang. Semakin banyak pengangan yang diperolehi, semakin halus misi dan visi disusun. Sehingga boleh dibayangkan di dalam kepala kita seperti seurat benang yang menjadi jambatan kearah misi dan visi. Untuk meniti jambatan benang, memerlukan kekuatan yang perlu di cas dari masa kesemasa. Pengecesan kekuatan memerlukan kombinasi antara emosi dan akal. Terputusnya kombinasi antara emosi dan akal menyebabkan emosi membuat keputusan tanpa pengetahuan akal, dan akal menghukum tanpa pengetahuan emosi. Akal memerlukan emosi untuk merasa dan emosi memerlukan akal untuk menilai berdasarkan ilmu yang ada. Merasa dan menilai adalah fitrah manusia dalam menempuh kehidupan seharian.

Wednesday, April 9, 2008

10:09 am

Self-Development Begins with you
Stop making excuses-work on five keys to achieve your potential

I recently had the displeasure of working with one of the most negative people i have ever met. Let's call her Cindy.In Cindy's world, nothing good ever happens to her, the rain only falls in her part of town and there is a conspiracy to keep her from succeeding. The interesting thing about Cindy is that she intelligent, articulate and has a lots of potential.
The problem is that she will never realize her true potential if she does not change her attitudes and beliefs about who is responsible for her development. She constantly blames the organization she works with for not "training her more", she blames the government for taking all of her expendable income (through taxes) so she cannot go back to school, and she blames her family for taking up all of her time so she can never get anything done.
The one person who Cindy never blames is Cindy, and as a result she never improves in any facets of her life. Unfortunately, many of us see the world this way.
When we consider personal or professional development, it is too easy to blame external factors for our own shortcomings. The reality is that making an excuse is the easy way out, and making a positive change in your life comes comes down to you making a conscious decision to take action without waiting for someone else initiate it. Are you ready to start working on personal growth? If so, here are five keys to positive self development that may be of value to you.

1. Whatever it is that you want to achieve, do something about it.
For example, if you would like to be more efficient at your job, and you work on spreadsheets all day but not as fast as you could be, make a call and enroll in a night course that will sharpen your skills.If you believe that your health is holding you back from optimal performance, call your local fitness clubs and set up a training plan. Do it now and stop putting it off. Making the commitment is the toughest part of any self-development plan, so get moving now and you will have toughest part licked.

2. Choose one or two things at a time.
Do you have laundry list of things you would like to work on? Sometimes, looking at a huge list personal "to dos" can be intimidating, and as a result, you do nothing. I find it easier ( and more productive) if I choose one personal and one professional self development pro gramme to tackle at a time. You will be focused on the task at hand, you will not be overwhelmed, and as you complete one task after another, your confident will grow.

3. Adopt a selfish attitude.
Too many people play the martyr and say: " I can't do anything for myself because I have to look after others." Fair enough, but then how many dreams go unrequited because of this? How much potential is lost and unhappiness caused because you did not take care of your self first? The reality is that if you improve yourself, you will be able to do more for others and everyone will be happier. If you sharpen your professional skills and get a raise because of it, you will be able to provide for your family better.If you take time to exercise and find optimum health, you will be more confident, less stressed, and you will set a positive example for those around you. You may have to be creative with your schedule and how you get things done, but you can do it.

4. Spend time with people who are at where you want to be.
Learn from mentors and adopt the attitudes of the successful. Most people who have been fortunate enough to succeed in this world have done so because they are confident, positive and hardworking. Surround yourself with these people and you will start to understand how they came to succeed. The people you spend time with have massive influence on your attitudes and mindset, so be careful about this.

5. Recognize that it is all up to you.
Your growth and development is your responsibility - not government's, your employer's, your family's or your religion's. Randy Gage, an American author, speaker and consultant on the topic of prosperity, recently said that when he looked back at his failed relationships, his crooked business partners, his bankrupt bank account and his failing health, he realized that there had only been one person at the scene of each of these "crimes". Him.
Are you the only one at the scene of your own failures? For most of us, this is the case. Start taking some positive self-responsibility for your personal and professional growth. Recognize that the choices you make now will impact your future. A positive action today, even a small one, could lead you to a very positive tomorrow - and will help you to avoid becoming the neighborhood Cindy

Article by Paul de Burger, associate consultant at d'Oz International

Friday, April 4, 2008

Technology O&G...

Friday, February 08, 2008

HOUSTON (February 8, 2008) - INTEC Engineering has named Dr. Alastair Walker Associate Technical Director. Dr. Walker will lead the effort to build a new group focusing on providing Advanced Engineering services to INTEC’s clients. He will initially concentrate his efforts in Europe but with a goal to make this service available globally. Additionally, Dr. Walker will help with training, design guideline and tool development as well as participation in joint industry projects. Dr. Walker will be based in the UK office (Woking) although his role in INTEC’s technology arena will be global

“As we venture into deeper water and more hostile environments, design codes do not always offer the guidance needed. As such, there is a need to develop solutions for problems through the use of first principles and advanced numerical methods”, said Chris Tam, Chief Strategy Officer of INTEC Engineering, “Alastair brings immense depth of knowledge in advanced mechanics and a wealth of experience in pipeline engineering to the frontier challenges in our industry”.

Dr. Walker’s career includes over 35 years of experience in academia, advanced engineering and pipeline project management. Dr. Walker co-founded AME and KW Ltd. in the 1980s and 1990s respectively. He has led a number of Joint Industry Projects concerned with developing design methods for subsea pipelines on a wide range of topics, including lateral and upheaval buckling, strain based design and assessment, limit state design and design to accommodate high pressures and temperatures. He has acted in a leading engineering role on a number of projects, including the Jade Pipeline (160ºC) and the proposed SAGE pipeline (3500m water depth).

Dr. Walker holds an MSc in Thermodynamics from the University of Birmingham, a PhD from the University of Glasgow and DSc from the University of Strathclyde. Dr. Walker was also Reader in Engineering at University College in London prior to becoming Professor of Mechanical Engineering and then Pro-vice Chancellor before retiring from Surrey University in the UK.

INTEC is a leading engineering and project management company serving the international oil and gas industry with over 500 employees and offices in Houston, London, Delft, Kuala Lumpur, Perth, Rio de Janeiro, Lagos and Mexico City. Its technical disciplines include offshore field development, offshore pipelines, marine production risers, subsea systems, and flow assurance and operability. INTEC is a Heerema Group company.

Malaysia Towards Renewable Energy...

TNB Signs MoU With Felda Palm Industries Sdn Bhd And J-Power To Develop Biomass Power Plant

- Plant to utilize palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB) as fuel
- Power plant to be completed by end 2010

TENAGA NASIONAL BERHAD (TNB) has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Felda Palm Industries Sdn Bhd and Japan's J-Power to develop a biomass power plant at Jengka, Pahang.

The renewable energy project is planned for completion by end of 2010. Fuel to generate electrical energy will be sourced from palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB). Occupying an area of 4.6 hectares, the plant complex will house EFB processing and storage areas, a biomass boiler firing on EFB fuel, a steam turbine complete with the generator unit and other related auxiliaries. To ensure full compliance to Department of Environment requirements, the plant will be equipped with stringent environmental control and monitoring systems.

Upon completion, the plant will have a generation capacity of 10 MW and will be connected to the TNB 11 kV grid network that supplies electricity to the local surrounding areas.

The development of the Jengka biomass power plant is one of TNB's responses to the Government's Small Renewable Energy Power Programme (SREP) to promote renewable energy. Renewable energy has been widely accepted by the global energy industry as a necessary means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases to address the problem of global climatic warming.

Previously, the Government had initiated a commitment to encourage the use of renewable energy by introducing the Five Fuel Diversification Policy. Under the 9th Malaysia Plan, the Government has set a national objective to have 350 MW of the country's power generated from renewable energy by 2010.

To date, TNB has signed 9 renewable-energy power purchase agreements (REPPAs) with SREP developers in Peninsular Malaysia with a total export capacity of 49.8 MW. As a sign of commitment to RE, TNB had also agreed to purchase RE generated power at a price of between 14 to 21 sen/kWj.

With the increased capacity to cope with the increasing demands of the area, the power plant will be bringing long term socio-economic benefits in terms of businesses and employment opportunities to the surrounding areas in Jengka, Pahang.

Representatives from the three companies met on Tuesday, 18 March 2008 at the Kuala Lumpur Hilton to sign the document in a simple ceremony. The company Felda Palm Industries Sdn. Bhd. is a subsidiary of Felda Holdings Berhad involved in the business of purchasing and processing fresh fruit bunches and sales of its finished products. The Japanese counterpart, J-Power is a wholesale electric power company that is involved in the development and operation of hydro, thermal and renewable energy plants.

In his speech to address the witnesses of the signing ceremony, TNB Chairman Tan Sri Leo Moggie, defined the project as being 'in line with our company policy to protect, conserve and improve the environment in all our operations'. He also said that TNB was commited to comply with all applicable laws and regulations and establishing standards that would lead to continuous improvement of its environmental performance.

Tan Sri Leo also pointed out that, 'TNB is among the first movers in supporting the government's efforts to promote renewable energy as the country's fifth fuel. We continue to encourage the use of renewable energy such as co-generation, solar and biomass for power generation, in order to achieve a diversified fuel mix.'

Tan Sri Leo later witnessed the memorandum signing in his capacity as TNB Chairman. He was joined by Chairman of the Energy Commission Dato' Pian Sukro and Chairman of Felda Holdings Berhad Tan Sri Dato' Mohd Yusof Noor.

Signing for TNB were its President/Chief Executive Officer Dato' Sri Che Khalib Mohamad Noh, for Felda Palm Industries Sdn Bhd, its Group Managing Director Dato' Mohd Bakke Salleh and for J-Power, its Executive Officer and Director of Thermal Power Development Mr Fumiyoshi Matsuoka.

The signing witnesses were TNB's Senior Vice President (Corporate Affairs) Dato' Abdul Razak Abdul Majid, Felda Palm Industries Sdn Bhd's Chief Executive Officer Encik Abdul Halim Ahmad and J-Power's Director of International Power Business Department, Mr Naori Fukuda.